what are some brain hacks that a neuroscientist or a psychologist knows that most people don't?
the psychology of persuasion
everyone has to engage in some form of persuasion throughout most of their life. whether you are deciding with friends where to eat lunch or convincing a boss you deserve a promotion, you can always benefit from knowing the secrets of persuasion.
in dr. robert cialdini's bestselling book "influence: the psychology of persuasion, " what he found was :
在robert cialdini博士的畅销书《影响：说服心理》（influence: the psychology of persuasion）中，他发现：
behavior is heavily influenced by unconscious psychological factors
these psychological factors can be identified and utilized
if used correctly, people have no idea that they are being manipulated
free samples. have you ever seen free samples being handed out in grocery stores or while walking down the street? rest assured they aren't doing this out of the kindness of their hearts. studies have shown a dramatic increase in efficacy of marketing tactics if they are preceded by a "gift" which triggers a natural feeling of debt in the target.
an amazingly powerful concept. people will go to extraordinary lengths without even realizing it, just to remain consistent with their past actions and beliefs. this principle is especially significant if past behavior is public or written down, in which case it can't be denied.
why are there those silly laugh tracks on sit com tv shows? because they work! people are extremely susceptible to the opinions of others, even when obviously false.
in the aftermath of world war ii and the atrocities committed by many seemingly normal nazi commanders, greater attention was focused on the nature of authority in influencing people's behavior. it turns out, authority is one of the most powerful effects yet discovered.
we all know that we are more likely to respond to a request from somebody we like than from somebody we dislike. but how much further does this feeling go? apparently, a lot further!
one of the most fundamental attributes of persuasion, salespeople have been using the concept of scarcity for a very long time (ever hear or see the phrase "limited time only")? this one is also of interest to the relatively new field of behavioral economics.
memory consolidation and productivity can both be improved by taking breaks.
tambini et al. recently showed that resting your brain after learning is very important in memory consolidation. during rest the hippocampus is able to transfer information to the cortex to be stored. the brain cannot do this very effectively if you do not take breaks.
tambini et al.最近表明学习之后让大脑休息对于巩固记忆力非常重要。休息期间海马体能把信息转移到大脑皮层储存起来。如果不休息大脑就不能有效完成这个过程。
it is suggested that you work in 60-90 minute intervals and then take a break. ericsson et al. conducted a very interestingstudylooking at elite and average violin players and how much they practiced. they found that the elite players practiced for about the same amount of time as the good players per day. however, the elite players would practice very hard for no more than 90 minutes and then take breaks and even naps in between while the average players would practice throughout the day but with less focus.
建议你每工作60-90分钟就休息一会儿。ericsson et al.进行了一个非常有趣的研究，他观察了优秀的和普通的小提琴演奏家以及他们练习的多少，发现优秀的演奏家和普通的演奏者每天练习的总时间是一样的，但优秀的演奏家勤奋练习的时间不超过90分钟，然后就会休息甚至睡一会再练，而普通的演奏者整天不间断练习，但注意力却不够集中。
the world is so full of creeping dementia that forgetting feels ominous. if learning is building up skills and knowledge, then forgetting is losing some of what was gained. it seems like the enemy of learning.
it's not. the truth is nearly the opposite.
one upside of forgetting is that it is nature’s most sophisticated spam filter. it's what allows the brain to focus, enabling sought-after facts to pop to mind.
we engage in this kind of focused forgetting all the time without giving it much thought. to lock in a new computer password, we must block the old one from coming to mind; to absorb a new language, we must hold off the corresponding words in our native tongue.
as the 19th century american psychologist william james observed：if we remembered everything, we should on most occasions be as ill off as we remembered nothing.